Hi, I’m Karla Horne, a Food Inspector for the Michigan Department of Agriculture. Let’s take a look at some of the things that are required to be a successful food operator in the State of Michigan. The most common question posed to food inspectors
by new business owners is: I’m going to open a food business, what kind of building and equipment do I need to have? The requirements for your specific
business are found in the Food Law, the Food Code, and the good manufacturing
practices rule in the federal regulations. The type of business that you operate
will determine the requirements for your facility in this video we will give a general
overview of the basic physical requirements for a food establishment contact your area food inspector to obtain
specific requirements. The most basic requirement for food
establishment is that the building must be in good physical repair and suitable
for the safe production of food. There should not be openings in the roof, walls, or foundation that will allow the
weather or pests to enter. Also the building must be of suitable
size to facilitate the operation of your business. Is the building that you intend to
operated zoned for your intended use? Contact your local zoning officials to avoid unwelcome surprises. Another often overlooked area is the
water supply and wastewater disposal. The Michigan Food Law requires food establishments to have approved water supplies and
wastewater disposal facilities. MDA food inspectors will be asking
you to provide evidence that these facilities are approved. Is the building serviced by a municipal
water supply? Or is water provided by a private well? Wells must meet construction, isolation,
and testing requirements and be approved for use by the local health department. Wastewater must be disposed in the municipal system or a properly designed and constructed onsite system. This is another area where our partners
at your local health department must be contacted for planning, and approval, of the facility. Floors in your food establishment must
be smooth and easily cleanable. Acceptable materials for floor construction include
sealed cement and commercial grade vinyl tile or equivalent surface. Note that carpeting is NOT allowed in
food processing, preparation, or storage areas. Walls and ceilings must also be smooth.
easily cleanable and non-absorbent. In food processing areas acceptable
materials include fiberglass wall panels, ceramic tile, commercial grade formica, and vinyl coated ceiling tiles or
equivalent materials. In other areas high gloss, cleanable paint is acceptable. Lights in areas where food is exposed, as well as food display cases must have
safety-type bulbs installed, or be otherwise shielded from breakage and the potential to contaminat foods. This includes all food preparation areas, coolers and freezers where food is stored, food display cases. and in equipment washing areas. Your local mechanical inspector is responsible for the rules and regulations governing mechanical ventalation for cooking equipment. Mechanical ventalation is required for equipment that generates smoke, . or grease-laden vapors, heat or fumes. This includes: ovens, fryers, ranges, broasters, some dishwashing equipment, and other equipment determined by the
mechanical inspector to require mechanical ventalation. These requirements are found in the State Mechanical Code. Contact your local mechanical inspector
for the requirements, permits, and approvals. The Food Law requires ventalation equipment be in compliance with applicable state law. Note that your food inspector must see the
final approval has been granted by the mechanical inspector before a food establishment license may be issued. All preparation and processing tables must be smooth, easily cleanable corrosion resistant and durable for the intended use. They must be free of breaks, open seams, cracks, chips, or other similar defects. Acceptable materials include stainless steel, plastic laminant, or equivalent material. Also note that wooden tables are NOT acceptable for food use with the exception of bakery products. Handwashing facilities must be provided
in, or adjacent to, toilet rooms and conveniently located to food handling
areas, and food equipment and utensil washing areas. A sink is NOT considered to be conveniently located if one has to open the door or walk more
than twenty five feet to reach it. Each hand washing sink must be supplied
with hot and cold running water and be equipped with hand cleanser and
disposable paper towels for drying hands. The handwashing sinks must also be properly
connected to the wastewater disposal system. Note that these sinks are to be used for
handwashing purposes only. No other use is allowed. Any time we’re working in a food processing area or a food prep area, we’re going to have dirty dishes, pots and pans and we have to have an appropriate location in order to wash those dishes. Food equipment and utensil washing facilities, such as a three compartment equipment washing sink must be provided. Equipment and utensils must be washed,
then rinsed in clean water, then sanitized with an approved sanitizer. The equipment washing sinks must have bays that are large enough to immerse the largest equipment for washing, and must have drain boards for stacking soiled equipment, as well as for air-dried in clean equipment. The equipment washing sink and must be supplied with hot and cold running water and be properly connected to the wastewater disposal system. The last type of sink required for food
establishments is a mop sink. A mop sink is required for filling and dumping mop buckets and for rinsing out soiled mops. All food establishments are required to have a toilet facilities for the employees to use. Please note that public toilet facilities may be required by local zoning and building codes. Toilet facilities must be fully enclosed, be power vented to the to the outside air, have a self closing door, and must have a proper hand washing sink located either inside the restroom or immediately outside the door. Food, food packaging, utensils and employee work clothing may NOT be stored in the restroom. Michigan Department of Agriculture
receives many enquiries asking about home-based food businesses. Food that is to be offered for sale must not be prepared in the home kitchen. It is possible license a separate kitchen for food production that is located at a residence. Check with your zoning officials as part of the planning process Remember that all new construction or
remodeling projects for commercial businesses are required to be completed
by a licensed contractor. The necessary permits, such as building permits, plumbing
permits, electrical permits, and mechanical brunettes must be obtained before starting any work. Some of the best advice that we can offer you is this: if you are contemplating building a new
food establishment, or remodeling an existing food
establishment, contact your area food inspector BEFORE you
undertake any work. They’re available to assist you by
meeting with you to discuss your plans, looking over blueprints or drawings, or conducting a site visit to
determine if your plans are in compliance with requirements. Remember: it’s much easier and cheaper to plan
properly in advance than to make costly changes later. Remember to ensure that you have planned
for the following aspects of your food business: plan ahead, water supply, sewage disposal, zoning considerations, local building and construction codes. Is the building suitable for the
operation and in good repair? Easily cleanable floors, walls, and
ceilings; proper lighting, properly constructed food equipment, adequate handwashing facilities, adequate equipment and utensil washing sinks, adequate toilet facilities, and remember to plan ahead and discuss
your plans with the inspector to ensure you have all of your bases covered.